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José Manuel Guerreiro Santana - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

José Manuel Guerreiro Santana começou a prática das Artes Marciais aos quatorze anos com o Mestre de Karaté Shotokan Luís Cunha, no Ginásio Clube Português, em Lisboa.

sábado, 17 de novembro de 2007

Mushin - A State of Mind


Mushin (無心) is a state into which very highly trained martial artists are said to enter during combat. The term is shortened from mushin no shin (無心の心), a zen expression meaning mind of no mind. That is, a mind not fixed or occupied by thought or emotion and thus open to everything. For the origin of the mushin concept see Muga-mushin.
Mushin is achieved when a fighter feels no anger, fear or ego during combat. There is an absence of discursive thought, and so the fighter is totally free to act and react towards an opponent without hesitation. At this point, a person relies not on what they think should be the next move, but what is felt intuitively.
A martial artist would likely have to train for many years to be capable of mushin. This allows time for combinations of movements and exchanges of techniques to be practised repetitively many thousands of times, until they can be performed spontaneously, without conscious thought.
The legendary Zen master Takuan Sōhō said:[2]
"The mind must always be in the state of 'flowing,' for when it stops anywhere that means the flow is interrupted and it is this interruption that is injurious to the well-being of the mind. In the case of the swordsman, it means death. When the swordsman stands against his opponent, he is not to think of the opponent, nor of himself, nor of his enemy's sword movements. He just stands there with his sword which, forgetful of all technique, is ready only to follow the dictates of the subconscious. The man has effaced himself as the wielder of the sword. When he strikes, it is not the man but the sword in the hand of the man's subconscious that strikes".
However, mushin is not just a state of mind that can be achieved during combat. Many martial artists, particularly those practicing Japanese martial arts such as aikido or iaijutsu, train to achieve this state of mind during kata so that a flawless execution of moves is accomplished - that they may be achieved during combat or at any other time. Once mushin is attained through the practicing or studying of martial arts (although it can be accomplished through other arts or practices that refine the mind and body), the objective is to then attain this same level of complete awareness in other aspects of the practitioner's life.
Mushin is very closely related to another state of mind known as heijoshin[3], wherein a complete balance and harmony is attained in one's life through mental discipline. Musashi Miyamoto, the great swordsman, alighted to these mental states briefly, and his conversations with Jattaro were often repeated in Japanese folklore as lessons to be learned for the practice of one's life. Mushin and 'heijoshin are closely related to the teachings of Buddhism and mostly zen teachings, and indeed the more mental aspects and attributes share much in common with these philosophies.

(1) Mugai Ryu - The Classical Samurai Art of Drawing the Sword by Darrell Max Craig. YMAA Publication Center, Boston, Mass., 2002, p.20
(2) Unfettered Mind, the by Takuan Soho. Trans. William Scott Wilson. Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd., 1986.
(3) Kendo, Its Philosophy History and Means to Personal Growth by Minoru Kiyota. Kegan Paul International, 1995, p.13

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